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6                                  SHIPPING PRACTICE

who does not sign a contract to ship only by conference

One copy of the manifest and a plain copy of each bill of
lading, known as the captain's copy, is forwarded to the port
of delivery. Other copies of manifests and bills of lading
are handed to customs and consular authorities as required.

On arrival of the steamer at port of destination, the con-
signee presents his bill of lading to the shipping company,
or their overseas representatives, who issue a delivery order
in exchange, which the consignee hands to the officer in
charge of the ship and obtains his cargo.

In order to avoid deky in sorting cargo on arrival,
stowage plans are made out by the loading staff which show
the position of the goods. In this manner, and by this
guide, each receiver of cargo is advised where his cargo is,
when it will be delivered, and consequently delay and time
lost awaiting cargo is diminished.

An example of a stowage plan is shown on page 5; the
position of cargo as loaded has to be inserted thereon.

In stowing cargoes the stevedores see that all light car-
goes are stowed over heavy cargoes, and that protection is
made, by way of dunnage mats, separating the cargo.

Much space is lost in stowing packages of irregular shape

such as barrels, drums, awkward shaped cases, etc., and this

space is termed broken stowage. It must not be confused

j with the term breaking bulk> which is the expression used

| for opening a hatch at port of delivery and removing cargo.

Shipments under charter-parties are very similar. The
carrier provides the steamer according to the charter-
party terms, and the charterer supplies the cargo to the
ship as fast as she can load. This cargo is tallied into the
ship, or when the shipment is a bulk cargo the amount
supplied is said to be so many tons upon which freight is
charged. The method of tallying and preparation of ship's
papers is identical, although in charter-party shipments
usually one or only a few bills of lading are issued compared
with perhaps 200 to 400 bills under a berth contract.